Biomarkers for Checkpoint Inhibition.
American Society of Clinical Oncology educational book. American Society of Clinical Oncology. Meeting, May 31, 2017
The identification of predictive biomarkers for the benefit of cancer immunotherapy is the holy grail of the burgeoning immunotherapy field. Recent work has shown that there are a core of concepts that establish the presence of an immune cell-infiltrate, an inflammatory signature of the tumor microenvironment, and the availability of target antigens defined by mutated neoantigens, as critical for the success of the checkpoint blockade. Genetic analyses have shown that resistance to PD-1 blockade, either innate or adaptive, may be due to existing or de novo mutations in signaling pathways critical for T-cell function in a modest proportion of cases. Major hurdles in the field that remain to be overcome are the difficulty of obtaining tumor biopsies for biomarker assessment, the heterogeneity of biomarker expression within tumors and within different tumors from the same patient, and the inducibility of some biomarkers by disease-related processes. Although assessment of peripheral blood or serum biomarkers would be ideal, few data suggest that they would reliably predict outcome with checkpoint blockade. Ultimately, some amalgamated biomarker that includes tumor and host factors will be required to predict which patients are likely to benefit from, or be resistant to, the effects of checkpoint inhibition.
Pubmed Link: 28561695