Established and Novel Prognostic Biomarkers in Multiple Myeloma.
American Society of Clinical Oncology educational book. American Society of Clinical Oncology. Meeting, May 31, 2017
Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable plasma cell malignancy characterized by notable interpatient heterogeneity. There have been important advances in therapy and overall survival, but some patients with high-risk features still have poor survival rates. Therefore, accurate identification of this subset of patients has been integral to improvement of patient outcome. During the last few years, cytogenetics, gene expression profiling, MRI and PET/CT, as well as serum free light chain assays have been used as accurate biomarkers to better characterize the diverse course and outcome of the disease. With the recent advances of massive parallel sequencing techniques, the development of new models that better stratify high-risk groups are beginning to be developed. The use of multiparameter flow cytometry and next-generation sequencing have paved the way for assessment of minimal residual disease and better prognostication of post-therapeutic outcomes. Circulating tumor cells and circulating tumor DNA are promising potential biomarkers that demonstrate the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of MM. Finally, more prognostic markers are being developed that are specific to immunotherapeutic agents. In this review, we discuss these traditional and novel biomarkers that have been developed for MM and also those that can predict disease progression from precursor stages. Together, these biomarkers will help improve our understanding of the intrapatient and interpatient variabilities and help develop precision medicine for patients with high-risk MM.
Pubmed Link: 28561668