Cardiovascular biomarkers and their utility in the older adult.

Susan P Bell, Jennifer L Giuseffi, Daniel E Forman,

Current cardiovascular risk reports, March 13, 2017

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals over the age of 65 yet diagnosis, risk stratification and management continue to be more challenging than in younger adults due to the vast heterogeneity seen in this population. The current literature validates the use of biomarkers in addition to traditional risk assessment tools in younger and middle aged adults. The evidence for biomarkers in this older population is sparse; this review examines the epidemiological association of current biomarkers in the field and the utility of these markers in the diagnosis, risk discrimination and management of cardiovascular disease.

Pubmed Link: 28286599

DOI: 10.1007/s12170-012-0262-0