Prostate-specific antigen kinetics after stereotactic body radiotherapy as monotherapy or boost after whole pelvic radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer.

Hun Jung Kim, Jung Hoon Phak, Woo Chul Kim,

Prostate international, January 18, 2016

Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has emerged as an effective treatment for localized prostate cancer. However, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics after SBRT has not been well characterized. The purpose of the current study is to assess the kinetics of PSA for low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients treated with SBRT using Cyberknife as both monotherapy and boost after whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) in the absence of androgen deprivation therapy. A total of 61 patients with low- and intermediated-risk prostate cancer treated with SBRT as monotherapy (36.25 Gy in 5 fractions in 32 patients) and SBRT (21 Gy in 3 fractions in 29 patients) boost combined with WPRT (45 Gy in 25 fractions). Patients were excluded if they failed therapy by the Phoenix definition or had androgen deprivation therapy. PSA nadir and rate of change in PSA over time (slope) were calculated and compared. With a median follow-up of 52.4 months (range, 14-74 months), for SBRT monotherapy, the median PSA nadir was 0.31 ng/mL (range, 0.04-1.15 ng/mL) and slopes were -0.41 ng/mL/mo, -0.17 ng/mL/mo, -0.12 ng/mL/mo, and -0.09 ng/mL/mo, respectively, for durations of 1 year, 2 years, 3 years, and 4 years postradiotherapy. Similarly, for SBRT boost after WPRT, the median PSA nadir was 0.34 ng/mL (range, 0.04-1.44 ng/mL) and slopes were -0.53 ng/mL/mo, -0.25 ng/mL/mo, -0.14 ng/mL/mo, and -0.09 ng/mL/mo, respectively. The median nadir and slopes of SBRT monotherapy did not differ significantly from those of SBRT boost after WPRT. Benign PSA bounces were common in 30.4% of all cohorts, and the median time to PSA bounce was 12 months (range, 6-25 months). In this report of low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients, an initial period of rapid PSA decline was followed by a slow decline, which resulted in a lower PSA nadir. The PSA kinetics of SBRT monotherapy appears to be comparable to those achieved with SBRT boost with WPRT.

Pubmed Link: 26779457

Full-text Link: PMC4685203

DOI: 10.1016/j.prnil.2015.09.002