Mechanistic basis and clinical relevance of the role of transforming growth factor-β in cancer.
Cancer biology & medicine, January 18, 2016
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a key factor in cancer development and progression. TGF-β can suppress tumorigenesis by inhibiting cell cycle progression and stimulating apoptosis in early stages of cancer progression. However, TGF-β can modulate cancer-related processes, such as cell invasion, distant metastasis, and microenvironment modification that may be used by cancer cells to their advantage in late stages. Corresponding mechanisms include angiogenesis promotion, anti-tumor immunity suppression, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induction. The correlation between TGF-β expression and cancer prognosis has also been extensively investigated. Results suggest that TGF-β pathway can be targeted to treat cancer; as such, the feasibility of this treatment is investigated in clinical trials.
Pubmed Link: 26779375
Full-text Link: PMC4706525